CURRENT DEPOSIT ATTRACTION TRENDS BY BANKS OF UKRAINE
Keywords:deposits, deposit policy, monetary policy, NBU, term deposits, demand deposits, discount rate, required reserves.
The deposit policy of commercial banks of Ukraine has undergone significant changes in recent years. These changes are mainly the result of the impact of macroeconomic indicators and the NBU's monetary policy. Since bank deposits are less risky compared to other methods of investment, there is an annual increase of their number and volume.
The purpose of the article: to study the modern deposit policy of commercial banks of Ukraine.
The article examines the peculiarities of attracting deposits by commercial banks of Ukraine in modern conditions, taking into account factors influencing the external environment. The reasons for the increase or decrease in deposit rates, the dynamics of deposits of individuals and legal entities in 2020-2023, the structure of deposits (the specific weight of deposits in national and foreign currency, the share of time deposits and demand deposits), the rating of Ukrainian banks by deposit portfolio volumes were analyzed. The influence of NBU monetary policy tools (accounting rate and mandatory reserve norms) on the deposit policy of banks is substantiated, and the main problems of attracting deposits in Ukraine are systematized.
In order to stimulate the attraction of bank deposits, in particular time deposits, it is first of all necessary to increase trust to the banking system, create prerequisites for stabilizing the country’s financial system. This requires specific measures from the National Bank of Ukraine and other state bodies, without which the measures of individual banks will have no result. To ensure a stable competitive position, each bank needs to introduce innovative deposit tools, develop loyalty programs and find new (more advanced) service methods.
Yankovy O. U zaviaztsi: NBU skorochuie refinansuvannia, uriad ta komertsiini banky pruchaiutsia [In connection: the NBU is cutting refinancing, the government and commercial banks are resisting]. Mind. Retrieved from: https://cutt.ly/AJgSjBD. [in Ukrainian].
Banky na viini: yak kredytuiut, platiat za depozytamy ta na chomu zarobliaiut [Banks at war: how to lend, pay on deposits and what they earn]. Retrieved from: https://minfin.com.ua/ua/2022/04/13/83647457/ [in Ukrainian].
Pro systemu harantuvannia vkladiv fizychnykh osib [On the system of guaranteeing deposits of individuals]: Zakon Ukrainy - Law of Ukraine. no. 4452-VI from 18.06.2023. Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/4452-17#Text [in Ukrainian].
Prystupa L., Stakhurska L. (2022) Orhanizatsiino-ekonomichne zabezpechennia depozytnoi polityky bankiv v Ukraini [Organizational and economic support of deposit policy of banks in Ukraine]. MODELING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ECONOMIC SYSTEMS. no 4. pp. 88-99. URL: https://mdes.khmnu.edu.ua/index.php/mdes/article/view/118 [in Ukrainian].
Osnovni pokaznyky diialnosti bankiv [The main indicators of banks]. Retrieved from: https://index.minfin.com.ua/ua/banks/stat/ [in Ukrainian].
Matviichuk N. M, Tesliuk S. A, Borychevska I. G. (2021) Bankivski depozyty ta OVDP yak alternatyvni obiekty vkladennia koshtiv [Bank deposits and IGLBs as alternative objects of investment]. Ekonomika ta suspilstvo – Economy and society, no. 25, pp. 306-314. Retrieved from: https://economyandsociety.in.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/294/282. [in Ukrainian].
Statystyka finansovoho sektoru [Statistics of the financial sector]. NBU – NBU. Retrieved from: https://bank.gov.ua/ua/statistic/sector-financial#2fs [in Ukrainian].
Matviichuk N. M., Tesliuk S. A., Zvirko A. O. (2022). Suchasna depozytna polityka bankiv Ukrainy yak skladova systemy upravlinnia pasyvamy [Modern deposit policy of Ukrainian banks as a component of the liability management system]. Skhidna Yevropa: ekonomika, biznes ta upravlinnia – Eastern Europe: Economy, Business and Management. no. 2 (35). pp. 168-174. Retrieved from: chrome- http://www.easterneurope-ebm.in.ua/journal/35_2022/26.pdf [in Ukrainian].
Richnyi zvit NBU za 2022 r. [Annual report of the NBU for 2022]. Retrieved from: https://bank.gov.ua/admin_uploads/article/annual_report_2022.pdf?v=4 [in Ukrainian].
M. Savluk (2022) Hposhovi zaoshchadzhennia nacelennia yak pecupc financovoho pynku [Saving the target as a financial bank]. Rol hposhovykh zaoshchadzhen nacelennia v pozbudovi ekonomiky Ukpainy: matep. nauk.-ppakt. konf. (Kyiv, February 19, 2002). Kyiv: KNEU, 2002. pp. 8-15. [in Ukrainian].
Matviichuk N. M. (2023) Formuvannia bankamy oboviazkovykh rezerviv yak vazhlyvyi instrument monetarnoi polityky pid chas voiennoho stanu [Formation of required reserves by banks as an important tool of monetary policy during martial law] Tsyfrova transformatsiia finansovoi systemy Ukrainy ta krain v-4 v umovakh yevrointehratsii: zbirnyk tez III mizhnar. nauk.-prakt. internet-konf. (Dubliany, 26 kvitnia 2023 r.). Part III. Dubliany: LNUP, pp. 85-88. [in Ukrainian].
NBU implementuie anonsovanu zminu v rozrakhunku oboviazkovykh rezerviv dlia posylennia konkurentsii bankiv za strokovi depozyty naselennia [The NBU implements the announced change in the calculation of required reserves to increase the competition of banks for time deposits of the population] Retrieved from: http://surl.li/kgjuc [in Ukrainian].
Petyk L. O., Barabash V. Yu. (2021) Analiz depozytnoi polityky komertsiinykh bankiv Ukrainy v umovakh ekonomichnoi nestabilnosti [Analysis of the deposit policy of commercial banks of Ukraine in conditions of economic instability]. Young Scientist. no. 11 (99). pp. 399-403. [in Ukrainian].
Mulyk T. O (2021) Analiz depozytnykh operatsii bankiv: stan, problemy ta vdoskonalennia [Analysis of deposit operations of banks: state, problems and improvement]. Modern Economics, no. 28, pp. 75-84. Retrieved from: https://modecon.mnau.edu.ua/analysis-of-bank-deposit-operations/ [in Ukrainian].